Wikidot. Com. Wikidot. Com share on join this site explore »   ozradonc a collection of thoughts and notes basic anatomy physics radiobiology pathology advanced radiation oncology research statistics forum forum recent posts create account or sign in home basic sciences anatomy physics radiobiology pathology advanced topics radiation oncology clinical oncology research research discussion forums site tools how to join this site? Site members recent changes list all pages site map admin tools site manager add a new page edit this panel a) papillary carcinoma welcome » basic sciences » pathology » m: endocrine malignancy » thyroid malignancy » a) papillary carcinoma epidemiology the most common thyroid malignancy of childhood and adult life. Females are more common affected (4:1). viagra natural casera femenina Rates of the disease are increasing but cure rates are high (over 90% for those under 45 years of age). generic viagra price compare Interestingly, the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer is between 5 and 35% in autopsy and thyroidectomy series. This suggests that many papillary carcinomas are relatively benign in their behaviour. Aetiology the aetiology of thyroid cancer is related to gender (through unknown mechanisms) and radiation exposure. Rates of papillary thyroid cancer in eastern european countries was elevated following the chernobyl accident. This was due to uptake of 131i in the developing thyroid gland, with a relative risk of 237 for those aged under 1 year. viagra instructions Natural history papillary carcinoma frequently passes to regional lymph nodes but haematogenous spread is less common. There are often microscopic deposits of malignancy in macroscopically normal thyroid tissue, likely due to lymphatic spread within the gland itself. mail order viagra Incidental papillary carcinomas found on imaging are thought to have a benign course in most patients. There is a 98% 20 year survival for patients with symptomatic disease with modern treatment and an argument can be made for observing asymptomatic thyroid nodules. viagra prescription us Clinical features the most common presenting features are: thyroid nodule cervical lymphadenopathy incidental findings of thyroid nodules are not uncommon. Local disease can lead to dyspnoea or dysphagia with involvement of adjacent structures. Imaging nuclear medicine scans detect papillary carcinoma as a cold nodule in the thyroid gland. best place buy viagra online yahoo answers Ultrasound is the best modality currently for determination of the nature of a thyroid nodule (cystic or solid). cheepest generic viagra Ct and mri do not add additional information except for mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Tumour features macroscopic most tumours are grey-white, irregular lesions that may infiltrate the surrounding thyroid tissue. Small portions may be cystic. Microscopic although papillary architecture is common it is not always present. Instead, diagnosis relies on nuclear features. There are several classical nuclear features of papillary thyroid cancer: elongation enlargement oval shape overlapping grooving (due to folding of the nucl. buy generic viagra